IP addressing is the process of assigning a unique numerical label, called an IP address, to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing.

IP addresses are usually written and displayed in human-readable notation, such as There are two main versions of IP currently in use: IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 addresses are 32-bit numbers that are typically written in the form "a.b.c.d", where each letter represents a group of 8 bits (a byte). IPv6 addresses are 128-bit numbers written in the form "a:b:c:d:e:f:g:h", where each group of letters represents 16 bits (2 bytes).

In a network, a device's IP address is used to uniquely identify it on the network and to allow other devices to communicate with it. Each device on a network must have a unique IP address in order to communicate with other devices on the network.

Sometimes when you cannot access the internet it's because your computer's IP address is assigned to a different value than it should have other than that of your network, when they are not the same they tend to not allow internet across devices hence you not accessing the internet.

Below are steps on how to remove the listed IPs from your system just in case you encounter no internet issue;

Step I

On your keyboard press the Win + R button to trigger the run command which will open for in the run command, and then you write control panel or just control and hit Enter.

Step 2

Once the Control panel is opened you will go ahead and click on the network and sharing center to view settings and other issues in the network and sharing center.

Step 3

Once the network and sharing center open select at the top left the change adapter settings to access the list of network adapters.

Step 4

Select the adapter that you are interested in either the WIFI name connected or the LAN connected

Step 5

After Identifying the adapter that you are connected to you will have to right-click on it and then select the status to view more options related to that adapter.


Step 6

To access the IPV4 section of the adapter you will click on the properties button and then double-click on the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPV4)



Step 7

Once the interface is opened you will double click on the Internet Protocol Version 4 and when it opens click on the Obtain IP address automatically and Obtain DNS address automatically, that way it will change from manual assigning to automatically assigning the IP address as seen below, once this is done hit OK to go to the previous window then OK again and finally you can exit the network configuration windows


Compiled by the Technical Support WOUGNET.

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November 2022: How to enable internet access - Proxies

The internet is one of the driving forces in all our surroundings and most especially the office environment. While doing our daily activities outside the office at times we come back and the internet is not working how it should work from the office. It shows it's connected but there is no internet access.

This mostly is caused by two things basically when you connect your computer to the internet at a different location let’s say a hotel where there was a conference or meeting.

There are two main culprits for the cause of a computer to connect and not access the internet and they include the following

  1. Proxy Settings are set manually
  2. An IP address is acquired automatically.

When the computer's proxy settings are turned on it means that the computer when connected to the network will detect and capture the information on the network proxy being broadcasted and saves it there in the computer's network proxy settings.

Below are steps on how to disable the proxy settings to enable you to be able to access the internet freely.

Step 1

Select the network settings from the taskbar

Step 2

While there right click on the WiFi icon and select network settings to open the network settings menu.

Step 3

Scroll on the network section until you find proxy settings


Step 4

Select the proxy options to reveal the proxy settings inside


Step 5

You can choose to turn off the automatically detect settings

Otherwise, you can select the use setup script setup and turn it off.


Or you can select the manual proxy settings and turn it off


Once all these are achieved you can go ahead and access the internet from your computer.

Check out part II for how to remove static IP addresses and note the above instruction is based on Windows 11 build. The process is quite the same for without 10 while for windows 7 and 8 you can always adjust from the proxy settings of internet explorer.

Compiled by the Technical Support Department

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October 2022: Migrating from MAC to PC part II

The process may take some time depending on the size of your library and the transfer method. Once the files are on your PC:

1.    Download and install the latest version of iTunes to your PC.

2.    Quit the app immediately after installing it.

3.    Find the transferred iTunes folder and paste it into your user’s Music folder.

4.    Click OK to approve any overwritten data.
Note: Completely replace the empty iTunes library with a copy of your Mac’s iTunes library.

5.    Navigate to the iTunes app on your PC again.

6.    Hold down the Shift key on your keyboard while opening the app.

7.    Wait for a window to appear asking you to Choose iTunes Library.

8.    Click the Choose Library button and navigate back to your user’s Music folder.

9.    Inside the iTunes folder, select the iTunes Library.itl file and click Open.

10. You can now access your complete music library on iTunes for Windows.

How to Transfer Photos & Videos from Mac to Windows PC

The built-in Windows Photos* app on your new PC allows you to organize, edit, and view your precious photos and videos easily. In general, you can copy a photo library of saved images directly to your PC and import them into the Windows Photos app. However, if you’re using Apple’s Photos* app for Mac, you need to export your images first.

Once imported, you’re free to browse all of your photos and videos, make basic edits, set up slideshows, or enable the People feature to automatically group photos.

How to Transfer Photos from Mac to Windows PC

Starting from your Mac:

1.    Launch the Photos app.

2.    Select the photos or albums you want to copy.

3.    To copy everything: select Library from the left sidebar and press the keyboard shortcut Command+A.

4.    With your photos and videos selected (outlined in blue), select File > Export.

5.    Choose whether to Export Unmodified Originals (unedited images only) or Export (#) Items (includes your edits).


If you select Export (#) Items, you can choose the file format and quality level of your exported photos. You can also opt to change their size, include keywords, location, and other metadata, and keep your desired naming and subfolder organizational scheme. To minimize file size, choose JPEG as your Photo Kind. To preserve maximum quality, PNG or TIFF is the way to go. Also make sure that the Size option is set to Full Size, unless you want your images resized.

1.    Select any export options, then click Export.

2.    Set an output directory and click Export again to start the process.

3.    It may take a while depending on the number of photos and your Mac’s performance.

4.    Copy the files from your Mac to your PC using your preferred data transfer method.

On your PC:

1.    Copy the files to your Pictures folder and then launch the Windows Photos app.

2.    Click the Import button in the toolbar at the top of the window.

3.    Select your user’s Pictures folder (or any other directory to which you added photos).

4.    The app scans the designated folder and displays any detected image files and videos.

5.    Use the Select drop-down menu to choose All Items and then click Import.

How to Back Up with Windows PC

Windows* 11 uses OneDrive*, a service like iCloud Drive*, to back up your most important folders automatically and more securely to the cloud. OneDrive ensures a proper backup in the event of a data loss, and it provides the option to access your PC’s data from anywhere via the web.

How to Back Up PC to OneDrive

Once you’ve moved all your Mac data to your PC, you can protect your data with a backup.

1.    Open the Settings app and head to Accounts > Windows Backup > OneDrive Folder Settings > Manage Sync Settings.

2.    Choose the folders you want to back up (Desktop, Pictures, Documents).

3.    Click Start Backup.

After the initial backup, all the files in these folders, and other files in your OneDrive folder, are synced to the cloud. OneDrive automatically backs up synced files. You can then recover your data from OneDrive if there’s an issue in the future. You can also access these files via OneDrive on the Web.

Be sure to keep an eye on your data usage. OneDrive can back up 5 GB of data with a free account, which is generally more than enough for your most essential documents. You can choose to upgrade to a Microsoft 365 subscription for up to 1 TB of storage to back up all of your data.

Windows Keyboard Shortcuts

Many of the keyboard shortcuts used in macOS* are similar in Windows*, but with one important difference: the modifier key. Instead of Command (?), Windows shortcuts typically use the Control (Ctrl) or Windows keys. For example, to save your document in Microsoft Word* for Mac, the shortcut is Command+S; in Word for Windows, the shortcut is Control+S.

With so many similarities, you’ll be up and running with Windows keyboard shortcuts in no time. Here are some common ones to get you started:

Software Compatibility & Windows Alternatives

Many of the most popular macOS* apps are also compatible with Windows*. Even when an app is truly exclusive to the Mac, the files can often be easily converted to a Windows-based alternative.

Here’s a list of common macOS apps and some suggested Windows-compatible alternatives. Note that these suggestions are just one of many options. The Windows ecosystem supports thousands of applications, which means you have alternatives for virtually any app or workflow.

macOS Application 

Windows Alternative

Apple Pages*
Microsoft Word
Apple Numbers*

Microsoft Excel

Apple KeynoteMicrosoft PowerPoint
Adobe creative cloudAdobe Creative Cloud
Apple Final Cut Pro XAdobe Premiere Pro
Apple MotionAdobe Media Encoder
Apple CompressorAdobe Media Encoder
Apple Logic Pro X

Adobe Audition

Apple iMovieWindows Photos App Video Editor

  Compiled by the Technical Support officer 

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September 2022: Migrating from Mac to PC (Part1)

Welcome to PC

This is it; you’re making the jump from Mac* to PC, and you’ve got questions. This in-depth guide has everything you need to know about making the switch from Mac to Windows* PC. We’ve got you covered with guidance on converting and transferring your files as well as setting up your new experience. It’s simpler than you might think.

Apple ID, Meet Microsoft Account

Although not absolutely required in most circumstances, a Microsoft Account helps you get the most out of Windows* and your PC, enabling more secure access and a host of convenient features.

You may already have a Microsoft Account from a previous PC, a former account, or even from your Xbox*. If you don’t have one or want to set up a new account, do it early in the transition process. Doing so, and associating it with your Windows login, automatically sets up access to services such as OneDrive*, the Microsoft Store, Teams*, and Skype*. If you’re interested, you have quick and easy access to optional services like Microsoft* 365 or Xbox Game Pass.

And no, you don’t really need to say goodbye to Apple ID. Many of Apple’s iCloud*-based services can be accessed from Windows via the web or select built-in apps.

How to Transfer Files from Mac to Windows PC

Although Macs* and Windows* PCs use different file systems, most file types are cross-compatible between operating systems. It’s just a matter of moving the data to your new PC, and there are several ways to do it1.

Transfer Files Using an External Drive

An external storage device (external hard drive or USB flash drive) can be used to copy data between your Mac and your new PC. For the broadest compatibility, you can format that drive with the exFAT* file system, which both macOS* and Windows* can write to.

Before you format an external storage device, first back up any data on the device. If it’s not a brand-new drive, formatting it erases all existing files. Once that’s done, you can format the drive to exFAT in macOS or Windows.

Using Mac:

  1.           Launch the Disk Utility application and select the external drive as the source.
  2.           Choose Erase from the list of icons near the top of the window.
  3.           Name the drive as desired, use the Format drop-down menu to select exFAT, and click Erase.
  4.           Once the process is complete, the drive is mounted in Finder.
  5.           Use Finder to drag-and-drop files and data from your Mac to the external drive.
  6.           Connect the drive to your PC and launch File Explorer to access the drive.
  7.            You can now drag or copy your files from the external drive to your PC.

Using Windows:

  1.      Connect the drive to your PC and launch the Start Menu.
  2.      Type Create and Format Hard Disk Partitions.
  3.      Click the matching result to launch the Windows Disk Management utility.
  4.      Find your external drive listed in the lower half of the window.
  5.      Right-click on its primary partition and choose Format.
  6.      From the File System drop-down menu, select exFAT.
  7.      If desired, add a name for the drive in the Volume Label field and click OK.
  8.      Click OK on the popup window to confirm again and start the disk formatting process.
  9.      Once the process is complete, connect the drive to your Mac.
  10.      Use Finder to drag-and-drop files and data from your Mac to the external drive.
  11.      Connect the drive to your PC and launch File Explorer to access the drive.

You can now drag or copy your files from the external drive to your PC.

Note: Depending on the size of your external storage device, you may not be able to fit all your data onto the external drive at once. In this case, delete data from the external drive after it has been copied to your PC to clear space, and repeat the process as necessary.

Transfer Files Using a Cloud Service

You can use a cloud service if you don’t have many large files like videos. This option works best if you have an internet connection with fast upload speeds. Online file synchronization services such as OneDrive*, Dropbox*, or even iCloud* can sync your data from your Mac to your new PC.

1.    Make sure that the service is configured to sync the desired folders.

2.    Check that the syncing process is up to date.

3.    Then install the corresponding app on your new PC.

4.    Once you sign into your account, sync all the files over to the PC.

Transfer Files Using a Local Network

If both your Mac and your PC are on the same local network, you can use a network transfer to copy data between the two systems.

Starting on your Mac:

1.    Go to System Preferences > Sharing and check the box for File Sharing.

2.    In the Shared Folders section, click the plus icon.

3.    Add the folders that you want to copy.

4.    Repeat this process to add as many folders as desired.

5.    Make note of your Mac’s network address, which starts with smb://.

6.    Click Options to verify that the check box next to your username is checked. This step enables network transfers via the SMB protocol.

And now from your Windows PC:

1.    Click the Start button and type Run.

2.    Select the Run command to open the utility. In the text box, type two backslashes followed by your Mac’s network address.
Example: For network address smb://, enter \\ (note the change to backslash).

3.    Hit Enter to attempt the connection.

4.    When asked for a username and password, select More Choices > Use a Different Account.

5.    Enter your Mac account username and password and select OK. Your Mac username is the name of your Home folder in Finder.

6.    Once the shared folders window pops up, drag your data from the Mac to the PC.

Note: The transfer speed can vary depending on your network and the connection strength of each device. To help ensure superior performance, use wired Ethernet or the latest compatible Wi-Fi version. For Wi-Fi networks, position both PC and Mac devices close to the Wi-Fi router.

Where to Put Your Files on Windows PC

Like macOS, Windows user account offers default folders such as Documents, Pictures, Music, and Videos. While optional, using these folders helps keep your data organized, accessible, and safe, since most backup and online syncing services protect these folders by default.

The File Explorer sidebar includes shortcuts to these folders, and you can always navigate directly to them via your account’s user folder at C:\Users\[user]\. As you copy files to your new PC, you can move documents, MP3s, and images to their appropriate folders.

How to Transfer Documents from Mac to Windows PC

If you use Microsoft Office* for Mac*, all your documents, worksheets, and presentations are already compatible with Office for Windows*. However, if you have files in Apple’s iWork* format (Pages, Numbers, Keynote), you must convert those files to an Office-compatible format. You can convert files easily on your Mac or the web via iCloud*.

How to Convert iWork Files to Microsoft Office Files

To view your iWork Pages*, Numbers*, and Keynote* files in Microsoft Office Word*, Excel*, and PowerPoint*, you need to convert them.

On your Mac:

1.    Open your files in the corresponding iWork app and select File > Export To.

2.    Select the applicable Office format (for example, Pages to Word). You may also select a compatible format such as plain text, EPUB, or PDF.

3.    Once converted, copy the files over to your PC as described previously.

Or from iCloud:

1.    If your documents are on iCloud, you can convert your iWork files over the internet.

2.    Log in to your account at and select the iWork apps.

3.    Select the desired file to open it.

4.    Click the wrench icon from the toolbar at the top of the document.

5.    Select Download a Copy and the option to convert the file to the applicable Office format.

How to Transfer Bookmarks from Mac to Windows PC

Depending on the browser you use, transferring bookmarks is quick and easy. You can instantly sync your bookmarks to your PC from Edge*, Chrome*, or Firefox*: install the same browser and sign into the same account you used on your Mac.

If you used Safari*, you can manually export bookmarks to an HTML file that can be imported by almost any other browser.

1.    Launch Safari on your Mac and select File > Export Bookmarks.

2.    In the popup window, choose a save location for your exported bookmarks and then click Save.

3.    Copy this HTML file to your PC using one of the file transfer methods.

4.    Follow the instructions for your preferred web browser on how to import bookmarks.

Edge: Select Settings and More (three dots) > Settings > Import or Export > Import from File.

Chrome: Select More (three dots) > Bookmarks > Import Bookmarks and Settings.

Firefox: Select Menu (three lines) > Bookmarks > Manage Bookmarks > Import Bookmarks from HTML.

How to Transfer Email from Mac to Windows PC

There’s no transition to worry about if you’re already using a web-based email service such as or Gmail. Simply log into your account via your preferred browser in Windows.

The transition is still easy with the Apple Mail* app with a POP account or IMAP account; the built-in Windows Mail* app can handle the same accounts. Check with your email account provider for the appropriate settings and server addresses. For common web services such as Yahoo Mail* or even iCloud*, the Windows Mail app can automatically configure your account with just your email address and password.

How to Transfer Music from Mac to Windows PC

All your favorite music streaming services3 - Spotify*, Pandora*, TIDAL*, and many more—are available on Windows. If you have a collection of locally saved music files, you can play them locally with Microsoft Groove*. You can also add your files to OneDrive and access your music from other PCs, the web, and your Xbox console.

And if you’re an Apple Music* or iTunes* user, you can stick with the fully-supported iTunes for Windows*. You can even copy an entire iTunes library to Windows.

How to Transfer iTunes Library from Mac to Windows PC

In recent versions of macOS, the music portion of iTunes now exists in a separate Music* app. Whether you use iTunes or the Music app, the steps for copying the library to iTunes for Windows are nearly identical. By default, your iTunes music is stored in the Music folder of your User folder, and it’s best to consolidate your music files here before moving the library.

Starting from your Mac:

1.    Launch iTunes or the Music app and select File > Library > Organize Library.

2.    Check the box for Consolidate Files and click OK.

3.    Wait for the consolidation process complete. It may take a while depending on your library’s size and location.

4.    Use Finder to navigate to User > Music.

5.    Copy the folder to your PC using one of the data transfer methods described earlier.

Watch out for Part ii 

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August 2022: Low Battery Settings in iPhone

We all know the iPhone drill: a "Low Battery. 20% battery remaining" alert, followed by options to tap Low Power Mode or deny reality by tapping Close. Apple added Low Power Mode as part of iOS9 in order to save battery, so should battery-conscious iPhone users just keep Low Power Mode on all the time now that we're on iOS16?

The reality of keeping Low Power Mode always on is that the pros and cons will depend on your iPhone model, how you use the phone, and how much you care about saving your battery charge. Learn exactly what Low Power Mode disables and how to keep it on permanently, if you want to give it a try.

For more, be sure that you're not charging your iPhone the wrong way, and learn why the iPhone battery meter icon is changing with iOS 16.1.

What is iPhone Low Power Mode?

Low Power Mode is an iOS setting that disables some iPhone features to save battery charge when it is low. Your iPhone will ask you if you want to turn on Low Power Mode when your battery drops to 20%, and then again at 10%.

Apple says that Low Power Mode reduces the amount of power that your iPhone is using to make your battery last longer.

You can tell when you are in Low Power Mode because your battery icon will be yellow. Your iPhone automatically turns off Low Power Mode when your battery charge reaches 80%.

Which features does iPhone Low Power Mode disable?

According to the official Apple support page, Low Power Mode makes these changes to conserve your battery's charge:

  1. Turns off 5G (except for video streaming)
  2. Sets your iPhone screen to turn off after 30 seconds of inactivity
  3. Reduces display brightness
  4. Lowers display refresh rate for iPhones with ProMotion
  5. Eliminates some visual effects
  6. Pauses iCloud Photos sync
  7. Suspends automatic downloads
  8. Pauses email fetch
  9. Stops background apps from refreshing

Low Power Mode also disables viewing videos in HDR, turns off the Always On display in iPhone 14 Pro and Pro Max, disables video autoplay, and reduces CPU and GPU performance.

How do I turn on iPhone Low Power Mode?

The manual way to keep Low Power Mode on all the time would be to simply put your iPhone into Low Power Mode every time after you charge it. You can turn it on manually by going to Settings > Battery and toggling on Low Power Mode.

You can also turn on Low Power Mode manually with the iPhone Control Center or with Siri.

How do I turn on iPhone Lower Power Mode permanently?

But there's a simple way to "set it and forget it." To automatically keep your iPhone in Low Power Mode at all times, you'll need to get a little crafty and make your own Personal Automation using the Shortcuts app.

There are many ways to automatically set Low Power Mode using Shortcuts, but for me, the easiest method is to turn on Low Power Mode whenever the battery is less than 100%. That way, your iPhone is essentially in Low Power Mode all the time, but it can also create backups, complete downloads and receive updates when it's plugged in and charged at 100%.

Scroll all the way to the right on your iPhone home screen to get to your App Library, then scroll down and tap Shortcuts. Once the app is running, select Automation at the bottom of the screen, then tap the blue Create Personal Automation button.

On the New Animation screen, scroll down and select Battery Level. Tap the bottom option, Falls Below, and then move the slider all the way to the right for 100%. Then click Next. You've set your condition for triggering an action.

Now create the action to set your iPhone to Low Power Mode. On the Actions screen, click the blue Add Action button. You can then type in "Low" in the search box and tap Set Low Power Mode, or tap Scripting and find it under Device.

Once you've selected Set Low Power Mode, it will show up on your Actions screen as "Turn Low Power Mode On." Click Next. On the following New Automation screen, toggle Ask Before Running off to let Lower Power Mode be turned on automatically. If you want, you can request a notification for every time the automation runs.

Confirm "Don't Ask," then tap Done to finish. You're all set. Every time your battery drops below 100%, your iPhone will automatically switch into Low Power Mode.

How much battery charge does Low Power Mode save?

You're not going to get a definitive answer here. The value of Low Power Mode has been debated ever since it was introduced. While some estimates say battery charges will last about one and a half times longer using Low Power Mode, others show very little difference in battery usage.

If you're concerned with making your iPhone battery last longer, you'll simply need to try out Low Power Mode for yourself and see the difference.

My own experience squares with that early estimate of a battery charge that lasts about 50% longer on Low Power Mode. Anecdotally, I find that Low Power Mode matters less when I am using the phone more. The benefit of Low Power Mode seems greater when my phone is idle, or used sparingly for texts and 2FA messaging.

On weekdays, when I'm working and mostly using my laptop computer, I generally only need to charge my phone every other day if I leave it in Low Power Mode. That still includes activities like posting on social media, streaming music with Spotify and watching downloaded videos on Netflix. If I don't have Low Power Mode turned on permanently, I usually need to charge my phone every day.

 How to get rid of Low Power Mode

If you find that Low Power Mode doesn't save your battery, you can turn off the automation by going into Shortcuts and toggling off Enable This Animation. To erase it completely, swipe left on your Low Power Mode automation on the main Automation screen, then tap the red Delete button.

You can also create your own custom version of Low Power Mode by tweaking your iPhone settings to take some of the measures that Low Power Mode does. For example, you can save significant battery by stopping background apps from refreshing or adjusting your brightness settings.

Compiled by Technical Support sited from CNET

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